Define Data Input/Output


In this activity, data managers will define the data input and the data output, which must be used and generated in each step of the lifecycle. As the data are generated from several sources and have a high level of heterogeneity, therefore it is necessary to have a plan, to overcome the challenges that are encountered during data management (Gharaibeh et al. 2017) and generate the necessary information to offer services to citizens.



  • A city service generates and consumes different data input and output for the city.



The challenges are present in most phases of the lifecycle. In a smart city, data is collected from various sources and from different manufacturers, which causes a big problem when integrating data.

Due to the characteristics of the data available in smart cities, other important issues are being raised to relation to the quality, privacy and security of the data (Gharaibeh et al. 2017) (Lim et al. 2018) (Barnaghi et al. 2015) (Liu et al. 2017). Heterogeneous data affects the quality of the data collected and consequently affects the final result of the analysis that will be used in the provision of a service.

The definition of the data input and output assist data managers to identify which data needs to be protected based on the data requirements, e.g. protected health Information (PHI), personal cardholder information (PCI), personal identifiable information (PII) or intellectual property (IP) (Digital Guardian).



  • Footfall Counter – it collects the number of people who pass on a specific place in a city.
  • Health Sensor – it collects the human body’s vital signs.


  • Barnaghi, P. & Bermúdez-Edo, M., & Tönjes, R., 2015. Challenges for Quality of Data in Smart Cities. Journal of Data and Information Quality. 6. 1-4. 10.1145/2747881.
  • Digital Guardian. The Definitive Guide to Data Classification.
  • Gharaibeh, A. & Salahuddin, M. & Hussini, S. & Khreishah, A. & Khalil, I. & Guizani, M. & Al-Fuqaha, A., 2017. Smart Cities: A Survey on Data Management, Security and Enabling Technologies. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. PP. 1-1. 10.1109/COMST.2017.2736886.
  • Lim, C. & Kim, K. & Maglio, P., 2018. Smart cities with big data: Reference models, challenges, and considerations. Cities. 82. 10.1016/j.cities.2018.04.011.
  • Liu, X., Heller, A., & Nielsen, P., 2017. CITIESData: a smart city data management framework. Knowledge and Information Systems. 1-24. 10.1007/s10115-017-1051-3.