A metamodel defines a language for describing a specific domain of interest (Bézivin 2004). A metamodel describes and organizes the syntax (e.g. concepts, attributes, and relations), constraints, and semantics of a specific domain that provide additional information about the modelling language (Cho & Gray 2011). Modelling is the process of creating and constructing models. A model is a generalized representation of a piece of reality, with only relevant real‐world properties considered during modelling (Sandkuhl et al. 2014).

ArchiMate Language

Open and independent enterprise architecture modelling language to support the description, analysis and visualization of architecture within and across business domains.

  • A technical standard from The Open Group
  • Based on the concepts of the IEEE 1471 standard
  • Based on the Metamodel of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
  • Supported by various tool vendors

We adopted the ArchiMate language and its viewpoint concept in order to model smart city services. This is necessary to reduce and manage the complexity of smart cities. The ArchiMate language will be extended in order to include new concepts and relationships of the smart city domain.


  • Bézivin, J., 2004. In search of a basic principle for Model Driven Engineering. Novatica Journal, Special Issue, 5(2), pp.21–24.
  • Cho, H. & Gray, J., 2011. Design patterns for metamodels. In Proceedings of the compilation of the co-located workshops on DSM’11, TMC’11, AGERE!’11, AOOPES’11, NEAT’11, & VMIL’11 – SPLASH ’11 Workshops. pp. 25–32.
  • Sandkuhl, K. et al., 2014. Enterprise modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method., Springer.