Define Stakeholders/Data Entity


A data entity is an encapsulation of data that is related to specific real-world things (e.g. sensors, mobile phones, city zones, etc.) (Cox et al. 2016). This activity aims to define the required data entities for each stakeholder of the current city service. The data of smart cities will contain various kinds of data entities, which, taken together, provide a common operating framework of the city. The set of data entities will have governance, stewardship, and a maintenance process (Consoli et al. 2017).




  • Supplies/Consumes (Stakeholder, Data Entity): A stakeholder supplies or consumes required data entities of the city.



Stakeholders are multiple and diverse in smart city environments and they require to consume or supply data entities which together support the decision making (Chourabi et al. 2012).



  • City authorities require to access to collected data from a Geographic Information System. The data is represented trough data entities such as basic cartography and orthophotos, the road graph, buildings, cadastral sections, the gas network, resident population, municipalities, hospitals, etc. (Consoli et al. 2017).


    • Chourabi, H. et al., 2012. Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, pp. 2289–2297.
    • Consoli, S. et al., 2017. Producing Linked Data for Smart Cities: The Case of Catania. Big Data Research, 7, pp.1–15. Available at:
    • Cox, A. et al., 2016. Espresso Project D4.2 – Definition of Smart City Reference Architecture, Systemic Standardisation Approach to Empower Smart Cities and Communities.