Freeman (1984) identified the stakeholder as “any group or individual who can affect, or is affected by, the achievement of the organization’s objectives”. There are four group of stakeholders defined by Marrone and Hammerle, (2018) which include citizens who use the smart city services, businesses who create smart city services, research organizations who research smart city services and Governments who develop the policies on smart cities.
Savage et al., 1991 (cited in Pourzolfaghar et al., 2018) identified four key stakeholder types as:
1) The supportive stakeholder who supports the organization’s goals and actions.
2) The marginal stakeholder who is neither highly threatening nor especially cooperative.
3) The non-supportive stakeholder.
4) The mixed blessing stakeholder who has an equal potential to threaten and cooperate.
All the relevant stakeholders, including governments, business sectors, civil society, academics, technical experts, and citizens closely work together to cultivate common rules and schemes to co-create value and deliver service for the good of all (Mayangsari and Novani, 2015).
- Freeman, E. (1984). ‘Strategic management: A stakeholder approach’, Boston: Pitman.
- Marrone, M. and Hammerle, M. (2018) ‘Smart Cities: A Review and Analysis of Stakeholders’ Literature’, Business and Information Systems Engineering. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 60(3), pp. 197–213. doi: 10.1007/s12599-018-0535-3.
- Mayangsari, L. and Novani, S. (2015) ‘Multi-stakeholder co-creation Analysis in Smart city Management: An Experience from Bandung, Indonesia’, Procedia Manufacturing. Elsevier B.V., 4(Iess), pp. 315–321. doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.11.046
- Pourzolfaghar, Z. et al. (2018) ‘Standardisation of Enterprise Architecture Development for Smart Cities’, (c), pp. 28–34.