A smart city’s core concern is to improve the citizens’ quality of life. Realization of the smartness is happening through the smart services. The services are provided by service developers. Government and authorities are responsible for governing the smart cities in terms of realization of the smartness. Responsibility of services in the smart cities is to enhance citizens’ quality of life. To achieve this goal, recognizing the citizens’ concerns is essential. Consequently appropriate objectives have to be set to address the recognized concerns and needs. Referring to defined classes for smart city stakeholders, their associated concerns are as below:

    1. Facilitated daily activities and lower costs
    2. Realization of smartness in terms of facilitated daily activities
    3. More market share and more benefits



The authorities’ concerns are associated with ensuring the realization smartness in terms of facilitated daily activities. As such, services developers can get more market share and earn more benefits in case of producing more qualified services. In this situation, this research consider a broader range of stakeholders and their concerns toward the service design context, including the citizens, authorities, and service developers. This consideration has been concluded by reviewing many papers related to various classes of stakeholders (e.g. Savage et al. 1991; Freeman 1984). Based on an extensive literature review, the stakeholders’ concerns can be summarized as: 1) Lower cost and facilitated activities for the citizens (Song et al. 2008; Fang et al. 2009; Zapata et al. 2013; Al-Hader and Rodzi 2009); 2) Realization of the smartness and citizens’ satisfaction for the authorities; and 3) Higher profit and more market shares for the service developers.


Concerns in Education Systems

    • Students’ concern: Access to digital learning sources and flexible learning
    • Parents’ concerns: Accessing digital learning portfolio (to view student progress)
    • Teachers’ concerns: Accessing digital teaching sources
    • Administrative concerns: Attracting more students from all around the world and sharing digital teaching resources across the world

Concerns in Healthcare System

    • A matter of concern for legislators was the right of the citizen to raise a complaint when the state itself was providing the service (Allsop, 2008)
    • citizens demanded for transparency, accountability and more open processes (Maxwell, 2003)

Concerns in Transport System

    • Transport systems should be comfortable and low-cost as possible. Also, EU needs to better respond to the desire of its citizens to travel and to be protected against harmful by-products of traffic(Eißel, 2014)
    • A major concern in developing countries is air pollution (Gwilliam, 2003)
    • People concern about safety and security problems are unwilling to use public transport or walk to key services because of fear (Santos, 2010)


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