Stakeholders in Smart Cities
Following the pioneering definitions for the stakeholders as well as the practitioners’ classifications, this research classified the smart city stakeholders into three classes including:
- Authorities and
- Service developers
Freeman (1984) identified the stakeholder as “any group or individual who can affect, or is affected by, the achievement of the organization’s objectives”. Developing the precedent works, Savage et al. (1991) identified four key stakeholder types:
- The supportive stakeholder who supports the organization’s goals and actions
- The marginal stakeholder who is neither highly threatening nor especially cooperative
- The non-supportive stakeholder, and
- The mixed blessing stakeholder who has an equal potential to threaten and cooperate
The above mentioned classes have been defined theoretically. Similar classifications are considered in real world practices. For instance, Kumar et al. (2011) conducted an exploratory research on the health care system and considered stakeholders as: patients (as the users of the services), physicians, pharmacies, medical vendors, ancillary providers (as the service providers) and managers (as the governance members). Similarly, Zapata et al. (2013) introduced various stakeholders for the transport system as the citizens, the city councils, and the industries to provide a service.
- Education system stakeholders are students, parents, teachers and administrators (Choi (2012); Jeong et al. (2013))
- Healthcare system stakeholders are patients, physicians, pharmacies, medical equipment vendors, medical service vendors, ancillary providers, government (Laric (2009); Bergman (2011); Maxwell et al. (2003); Coulter (2005); Allsop (2008); Song (2008); Fang (2009); Laric (2009); (WHO, 2007); Kumar (2011); Kilbourne (2006); Kaiseredu (2008))
- Transport System stakeholders are citizens, city councils and transport industry (Eißel (2014); Santos (2010); Gwilliam (2003); Banister (2008); Noland and Polak (2002); Shergold (2010); Zapata et al. (2013))
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- Jeong, J.S., Kim, M. and Yoo, K.H., 2013. A content oriented smart education system based on cloud computing. International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 8(6), pp.313-328.
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- Kumar, S., Ghildayal, N.S. and Shah, R.N., 2011. Examining quality and efficiency of the US healthcare system. International journal of health care quality assurance, 24(5), pp.366-388.
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- Noland, R.B. and Polak, J.W., 2002. Travel time variability: a review of theoretical and empirical issues. Transport reviews, 22(1), pp.39-54.
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- China Daily, 8 January. Available at: www.gov.cn/english/2008-01/08/content_852428.htm.
- Zapata Cortes, J.A., Arango Serna, M.D. and Andres Gomez, R., 2013. Information systems applied to transport improvement. DYNA, 80(180), pp.77-86.